Cumin is a seed spice well known for its medicinal properties in India and many other Asian countries. A native of the land of Mediterranean, Cumin is now grown mainly in India, Egypt, Syria, Turkey, China and parts of America. A speed spice, cumin is grown mainly in hot climatic conditions. India is the largest producer and consumer of Cumin in the world. Indian output is currently estimated to be around 200,000 ton per year. Gujarat and Rajasthan are the major production centers of the spice in the country.
West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab also make significant contribution to Indian output. Global output of cumin seed is estimated to be less than 300,000 ton per year with bulk of the output concentrated in Asian countries. Global demand as per export of cumin is estimated to be around 30,000 to per year. Since India is the largest producer and consumer, the price formation of cumin is mainly determined by domestic factors.
However, seasonal nature of the crop and fluctuations in global demand and supply also influences the price in the country. In India, Cumin is sown in October-November and harvested in February. Fresh crop generally reaches the market during March. Unjha in Gujarat is the main trading centre for Jeera in the country. Delhi, Jaipur and Rajkot are also known as major terminal markets for Jeera.